第二首我鍾情的合唱作品,
是文藝復興大師帕勒斯提納
(Giovanni Pierluigi da Plaestrina,
1525-1592),
所做的《聖母悼歌》 (Stabat Mater)。


Palestrina作曲數量龐大,
包括了104首彌撒 (masses)、
68首奉獻詩歌 (offertories)、
250首經文歌 (motets)、
45首詩歌 (hymms/psalms)、
33首聖母讚主曲 (magnificats)、
4或5首 lamentations(註一)、
140首牧歌 (madrigals)...等等等。


這位文藝復興時期最偉大的大師,
不單純是其作品數量多,
而且他為『複音無伴奏合唱』開創了嶄新的格局,
甚至十六世紀的複音音樂 (polyphony) ,
被稱為 The Palestrina Style,
而之後的另一位偉大作曲家巴赫 (J.S. Bach) ,
受到了Palestrina的《Missa Sine Nomine》所吸引,
而承現其曲調在他的偉大作品《B小調彌撒》裡。


其偉大的作品包括了《馬切里彌撒》 (Missa Papae Marcelli),
以及今天所呈現的《聖母悼歌》。


不過我找不到這首曲子的中文翻譯,
請大家將就點對照著拉丁文和英文,
過年期間我真的很無聊的話再來做個中文翻譯。
另外,等等我試試看有沒有辦法把pdf檔放上來,
讓大家可以對著譜聽音樂。


這仍然是 《The Sixteen》演唱的版本。


註一:我還真不知道這是什麼,沒印象有唱過這東西,悲嘆調??


Stabat mater dolorosa
juxta Crucem lacrimosa,
dum pendebat Filius.

Cuyus animam gementem,
contristatam et dolentem,
pertransivit gladius.

O quam tristis et afflicta
fuit illa benedicta
Mater Unigeniti.

Quae moerebat et dolebat,
Pia Mater cum videbat
Nati poenas incliti.

Quis est homo qui non fleret,
Matrem Christi si videret
in tanto supplicio?

Quis non posset contristari,
Christi Matrem contemplari
dolentem cum Filio?

Pro peccatis suae gentis
vidit Jesum in tormentis
et flagellis subditum.

Vidit suum dulcem natum
moriendo desolatum,
dum emisit spiritum.

Eia Mater, fons amoris,
me sentire vim doloris
fac, ut tecum lugeam.

Fac ut ardeat cor meum
in amando Christum Deum,
ut sibi complaceam.

Sancta mater, istud agas,
crucifixi fige plagas
cordi meo valide.

Tui nati vulnerati,
tam dignati pro me pati,
poenas mecum divide.

Fac me tecum pie flere,
crucifixo condolere,
donec ego vixero.

Iuxta crucem tecum stare,
et me tibi sociare
in planctu desidero.

Virgo virginum praeclara,
mihi iam non sis amara:
fac me tecum plangere.

Fac ut portem Christi mortem,
passionis fac consortem,
et plagas recolere.

Fac me plagis vulnerari,
fac me cruce inebriari,
et cruore Filii.

Flammis ne urar succensus
per te Virgo, sim defensus
in die judicii

Christe, cum sit hinc exire,
da per matrem me venire
ad palmam victoriae.

Quando corpus morietur,
fac ut animae donetur
Paradisi gloria.

Amen.
At the cross her station keeping,
Stood the mournful Mother weeping,
Close to Jesus to the last.

Through her heart, His sorrow sharing,
All His bitter anguish bearing,
Now at length the sword had pass'd.

Oh, how sad and sore distress'd
Was that Mother highly blest
Of the sole-begotten One!

Christ above in torment hangs;
She beneath beholds the pangs
Of her dying glorious Son.

Is there one who would not weep,
Whelm'd in miseries so deep
Christ's dear Mother to behold?

Can the human heart refrain
From partaking in her pain,
In that Mother's pain untold?

Bruis'd, derided, curs'd, defil'd,
She beheld her tender child
All with bloody scourges rent.

For the sins of His own nation,
Saw Him hang in desolation,
Till His spirit forth He sent.

O thou Mother! fount of love!
Touch my spirit from above;
Make my heart with thine accord.

Make me feel as thou hast felt;
Make my soul to glow and melt
With the love of Christ our Lord.

Holy Mother! pierce me through;
In my heart each wound renew
Of my Saviour crucified.

Let me share with thee His pain,
Who for all my sins was slain,
Who for me in torments died.

Let me mingle tears with thee,
Mourning Him who mourn'd for me,
All the days that I may live.

By the cross with thee to stay,
There with thee to weep and pray,
Is all I ask of thee to give.

Virgin of all virgins best,
Listen to my fond request
Let me share thy grief divine.

Let me, to my latest breath,
In my body bear the death
Of that dying Son of thine.

Wounded with His every wound,
Steep my soul till it hath swoon'd
In His very blood away.

Be to me, O Virgin, nigh,
Lest in flames I burn and die,
In His awful Judgment day.

Christ, when Thou shalt call me hence,
Be Thy Mother my defence,
Be Thy cross my victory.

While my body here decays,
May my soul Thy goodness praise,
Safe in Paradise with Thee.

Amen.
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  • Amal
  • 根據我不可靠的印象,以前金穗曾經差一點有機會唱這首的 -- 起碼我有從指揮口中聽說過。不過後來發生了太多事,這首跟橄欖山上的基督(如果我沒記錯的話)就這樣跟我們永遠地錯過了。

    遺憾哪。
  • 我也沒唱過,當初瑞團在唱時,
    我還沒回鍋,所以也緣慳一面。

    遺憾哪。

    ghyang 於 2007/10/27 22:29 回覆

  • Michelino
  • Stabat Mater

    Hope the following will be helpful.

    Stabat Mater - Planctus Beatae Mariae Virginis
    聖母悼歌
    吳新豪神父

    一般教友最有感受的祈禱,拜苦路應當是其中一項。拜苦路的核心部份,是把耶穌奔赴加爾瓦略山接受死亡的過程,分段地宣讀,而每一段又有相應的默想和祈禱。

    苦路有很多不同的版本:表示它們的默想和祈禱經文不一樣。但是在苦路一段與一段之間的聖詩,大部份都採用同一首聖歌。這首歌拉丁文叫做〝Stabat Mater〞,中文稱為「聖母悼歌」,或「聖母哀傷歌」,甚至用頭一句歌辭「聖子高懸十字架上」來稱呼:不一而足。所以這首「聖母悼歌」是拜苦路「不可少」的成份,但卻也是「不太受注意」的過門時間 - 即教友從一處移到下一處時唱的歌。

    「苦路善功」的歷史有點曲折。它源自信友一種很自然的渴望:就是想跨越時空,好感覺到與「當時」在「耶路撒冷」受苦至死的基督在一起:陪伴他走苦路。所以福音從耶穌的「原地」巴肋斯坦傳到羅馬,然後在第四紀初得到統治者接納以後,「當地」的教友就很主動地前往耶穌生平經歷過的地方去「朝聖」,去「接觸」救主。最有名的例子是來自賈莉西雅(Galicia)的熱心朝聖者厄潔莉雅(Egeria)女士, 就給自己的「姐妹淘」寫了「聖地遊記」(Itinerarium Egeriae 381-84)。
    朝聖者追念的地點涵蓋耶穌一生的幾乎每一點:領報、誕生、收門徒、山中聖訓、復活、升天……尤其受難死亡地方。日後這些地點漸漸蓋上小堂甚致大堂,以方便舉行敬禮。

    另一方面,大部份信友無法前往巴肋斯坦朝聖,教會就把聖物、聖「所」移到或蓋到自己的地方來,以滿足信友這種「接近」耶穌的心願。五世紀時波隆那(Bologna) 的主教聖佩特羅尼烏斯(St. Petronius) 就在聖斯德望隱修院,把耶路撒冷主要的聖所 (shrines) 都蓋了出來,因此那隱修院有〝耶路撒冷城〞之稱。

    苦路也就這樣出現在各國家,各地方了。在耶路撒冷拜苦路的時候,停留的定點和數目都不同:由數「處」至三十多處不等,默想的題目也不一樣。各地在蓋苦路 (小堂) 時,也有同樣的情形。到1731年,教宗格萊孟十二世 (Clement XII)把苦路規定為十四處,同時又把到聖地朝聖才能得到的大赦,擴大賜與所有舉行這善功的人;這使到教友更喜愛拜苦路了。

    聖母悼歌就在這種環境和神修紛圍下寫成的。這是一首二十段的三行拉丁詩。作者並不確定,但大都認為是1228年生於托迪(Todi) 的雅各布內(Jacopone da Todi)。他是一位成功的律師,寫詩和戲劇非常受到歡迎。太太四十歲那年,在舞會時,房子倒塌而摔死;雅各發現她身上穿著苦衣一直嚴厲地克苦,因而感到很大的震撼。遂變賣並捐出一切所有,1268開始年以方濟第三會員的身份, 雲遊了十年。1278正式成為方濟會修士。他因傾向默觀、神秘學和按「嚴規」苦行,因而受到「常規」會士的打壓,而多方受委屈和吃苦。

    聖方濟開始以真人表演耶穌誕生事蹟,向貧苦卑微的平民講述聖言攝取肉軀,生活於人間的種種:這是他靈修特色之一。雅各就以自己的文才,本著會祖的精神,寫出這首默想耶穌苦難的詩歌:且他不但自己,更貼合瑪利亞作母親的心情,在十字架下陪伴、瞻仰耶穌。

    這詩的內容可分為三部份:首先作者用了不少筆墨(vv1,2,3,6.最少七個詞語) 來描寫瑪利亞作母親者當時的痛苦,接著轉述聖子耶穌所受的凌虐(vv.4,5,6,7,8),而在此時已明顯表示作者及信友願意分擔母、子他們的痛苦:與聖母同苦、同哭(vv.5,6,9,13,14,15),分擔救主的痛苦(vv.12,13),甚致接受他的傷口(vv.11,16),及被釘的慘烈感覺(v.17)。而這一切都讓基督不要白白犧牲,信友終能因聖母瑪利亞的中保,得勝利榮冠(v.19),安抵天鄉(v.20)。

    這首詩非常簡練,每段只有短短三句。前兩句押韻,用的是強、弱交替的律動,第三句則以強、弱、弱結束:令全詩的節奏穩重而不呆板。

    雅各一生有不少成功的作品,這首詩更是受到青睞:除了常與拜苦路結合外,1727開始採用於禮儀中,主要是作九月十五日聖母七苦彌撒的繼抒詠,以及用作日課經的聖歌(Hymn)。

    然而最令人驚訝的是這詩歌受到音樂家們的厚愛:巴赫、海頓、李斯特、舒伯特等,都為它譜曲,可以說「無一倖免」。從十五世紀到現在,已編寫的版本就有六百個以上,而已灌錄唱片的也有兩百個之多。不難體會到這詩歌動人之處,不只是它的文詞簡約典雅,更是由於它把救主的恩情,母親在苦痛中的犧牲,深刻而又細膩地呈現在大家眼前。

    另一個奇妙之處是這麼多大音樂家的作品中,最受人歡迎的版本是二十六歲過世的年輕音樂家佩爾戈萊西 (Giovanni Battista Pergolesi) 的作品。這作品旋律優美,組織結構上剛柔兼備,在動的低音之上有著不捨的滯留。然而令人感慨的是:他抱病在隱修院中完成這受委的作品,不久就離開人世:這就成為他一生最後的作品。

    「基督,當我離此塵世,賜我倚恃聖母恩慈,到達勝利的光榮。在我肉軀亡故之日,使我靈魂蒙受恩賜,獲享天堂的榮福。」

    這首歌裡面有的不只是佩爾戈萊西的技藝、他的靈感,還有他的靈魂,他的整個生命。



    跋:文章選了「聖母悼歌」這首曲子是因為:第一、行文時為五月,傳統恭敬聖母的月份。第二、今年教宗邀請了我們的陳日君樞機主教寫聖週五的苦路經文,「聖母悼歌」沒有缺席。教宗在致中國教會的信函中,亟願五月二十四日聖母進教之佑瞻禮,成為全世界教友聯合為在中國的教會祈禱的日子。

    Stabat Mater - Planctus Beatae Mariae Virginis
    聖母悼歌
    1
    Stabat Mater dolorosa
    Juxta crucem lacrimosa, Dum pendebat Filius.
    聖母痛苦侍立
    含淚十字架旁
    當聖子高高懸起時 1
    The grieving Mother stood
    beside the cross weeping
    where her Son was hanging.
    2
    Cujus animam gementem, Contristantem et dolentem, Pertransivit gladius.
    她心靈長嘆
    憂悶痛傷
    被利刃所刺穿 2
    Through her weeping soul,
    compassionate and grieving,
    a sword passed.
    3
    O quam tristis et afflicta Fuit illa benedicta
    Mater unigeniti!
    何等愁苦悲傷
    那當受稱揚者
    獨生聖子的母親 3
    O how sad and afflicted
    was that blessed
    Mother of the Only-begotten!
    4
    Quae moerebat et dolebat, Pia Mater, dum videbat
    Nati poenas inclyti.
    淒楚感傷
    慈母仰視
    榮耀之子受難時 4
    Who mourned and grieved,
    the pious Mother, with seeing
    the torment of her glorious Son.
    5
    Quis est homo qui non fleret, Matrem Christi si videret In tanto supplicio?
    誰能不一起號哭
    看到基督之母
    忍受這般的痛楚 5
    Who is the man who would not weep
    if seeing the Mother of Christ
    in such agony?
    6
    Quis non posset contristari, Christi Matrem contemplari Dolentem cum Filio?
    誰能不滿懷悲愁
    瞻仰基督之母 
    與其子同憂共苦 6
    Who would not be have compassion
    on beholding the devout mother
    suffering with her Son?
    7
    Pro peccatis suae gentis, Vidit Jesus in tormentis, Et flagellis subditum.
    為了祂子民的罪辜
    仰視耶穌受盡苦辱
    鞭跡杖痕無完膚 7
    For the sins of His people
    she saw Jesus in torment
    and subjected to the scourge.
    8
    Vidit suum dulcem natum Moriendo desolatum, Dum emisit spiritum.
    眼見自己親生愛子
    孤苦伶仃與世長辭 
    救主耶穌嚥氣時 8
    She saw her sweet Son
    dying, forsaken,
    while He gave up His spirit.
    19
    Christ, when it is henceforth in need to pass away,
    grant that through your Mother I may come
    to the palm of victory. Amen.
    9
    Eia Mater, fons amoris, Me sentire vim doloris Fac ut tecum lugeam
    哎呀慈母仁愛源潻藪
    求你使我感受淒楚
    好同你一起哀哭 9
    O Mother, fountain of love,
    make me feel the power of sorrow,
    that I may grieve with you.
    10
    Fac ut ardeat cor meum In amando Christum Deum, Ut sibi complaceam.
    使我內心燃起愛火
    全力敬愛基督天主
    一生常能取悅主 10
    Grant that my heart may burn
    in the love of the Lord Christ
    that I may greatly please Him.
    11
    Sancta Mater, istud agas, Crucifixi fige plagas Cordi meo valide.
    懇求慈母廣施慈恩
    將你聖子苦架傷痕
    強力銘刻在我心 11
    Holy Mother, grant this of yours,
    that the wounds of the Crucified be well-formed in my heart.
    12
    Tui nati vulnerati, Tam dignati pro me pati,
    Poenas mecum divide.
    將你遍身受傷之子
    為我罪人所受苦難
    分我一份共承擔 12
    Grant that the punishment of your wounded Son,
    so worthily suffered for me,
    may be shared with me.
    13
    Fac me tecum pie flere,
    Crucifixo condolere, Donec ego vixero.
    教我同你一齊痛哭
    並與耶穌共分淒楚
    在我有生歲月中 13
    Let me sincerely weep with you,
    bemoan the Crucified,
    for as long as I live.
    14
    Juxta crucem tecum stare, Et me tibi sociare In planctu desidero.
    與你共同侍立苦架
    教我站立你身旁
    是我含淚所期望 14
    To stand beside the cross with you,
    and for me to join you
    in mourning, this I desire.
    20
    When my body dies,
    grant that to my soul is given
    the glory of paradise. Amen.
    15
    Virgo virginum praeclara, Mihi jam non sis amara:
    fac me tecum plangere.
    童貞女中最卓越者
    我的心願請勿拒絕
    使我同你共哀嗟 15
    Chosen Virgin of virgins,
    to me, now, be not bitter;
    let me mourn with you.
    16
    Fac ut portem Christi mortem,
    Passionis fac consortem,
    Et plagas recolere.
    教我擔負基督之死
    作祂苦難中的良伴
    所受創傷永懷念 16
    Grant that I may bear the death of Christ,
    grant me the fate of His passion
    and the remembrance of His wounds.
    17
    Fac me plagis vulnerari, Fac me cruce inebriari,
    Et cruore Filii.

    使我感受祂的傷痛
    沉醉在祂十字架中
    共受聖子的酷刑 17
    Let me be wounded with distress,
    inebriated in this way by the cross
    and the blood of your Son.
    18
    Flammis ne urar succensus, Per te, Virgo, sim defensus
    In die judicii.
    免我身被水火焚炙
    賜我蒙受慈母恩護
    在我接受審判之日 18
    Lest I be destroyed by fire, set alight,
    then through you, Virgin, may I be defended
    on the day of judgement.
    19
    Christe, cum sit hinc exire Da per Matrem me venire
    Ad palmam victoriae.

    基督,當我離此塵世
    賜我倚侍聖母恩慈
    到達勝利的光榮
    Let me be guarded by the cross,
    fortified by the death of Christ,
    and cherished by grace.
    20
    Quando corpus morietur,
    Fac ut animae donetur
    Paradisi Gloria. Amen

    在我肉軀亡故之日
    使我靈魂蒙受恩賜
    獲享天堂的榮福。 20
    When my body dies,
    grant that to my soul is given
    the glory of paradise. Amen.

  • Thanx. I appreciate your hard work.

    ghyang 於 2008/09/20 20:31 回覆

  • 悄悄話
  • 唐爸
  • stabat mater的譯文

    palestrina的 stabat mater是將合唱團分成各兩個四聲部也就是共八聲部的合唱曲.這一首我聽了上百遍了,再加上去年演出後,我更進一步感受到封齋期的情緒.推薦你去天主教華明書局買李振邦神父所著作"教會音樂"其中就有你所想要的stabat mater的譯文,提供參考
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